STARTING AND DRIVING AN ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE

Description applies to all electric locos which can be found in the Simulator (EU07, EP07, EP08, EP09, ET21, ET22 [also the ET22-2000_v2 version], EP05, EU05, ET40, ET41, ET42, EU04, 181). The difference between individual locomotives is generally the brake valve, which is described in more detail further down. At the end, we also have descibed the changes in the controlling of the ET22-2000 and the ET42.

Choosing the direction of travel - Setting the reverser
d Go forward („Forward” position)
r Go backward
Attention: If the reverser is in the „Forward” position, in order to go backwards, you need to press the r key twice. The same applies in the other direction.

Starting the locomotive
j turns on the battery
The CA/DSD buzzer will turn on, use SPACE to turn it off. ATTENTION! Prior to this the reverser has to be set into either of the directions, by using either the d or r keys.
o/p Raises the rear/front panthograph (In relation to which cab you are in).
Wait untill the 'WN' (HV/High Voltage) Voltmeter shows a voltage of around 3400V

WARNING!
If the pantographs do not raise due to insufficient pressure in the Main Reservoir, then the Auxilary Compressor needs to be used Shift+V. Before the compressor is turned on, the Pantograph Reservoir needs to be isolated from the Main Reservoir by the use of the Three-way valve Ctrl+V, since the Pantograph Compressor is not capable of charging the Main Reservoir. After raising the pantographs and turning on the Main Compressor, it is necessary to connect the Pantograph Reservoir with the Main Reservoir Ctrl+V, otherwise the panthographs will come down, due to leakage of the pantograph's pneumatic system.

Certain locomotives have a main circuit breaker triping valve pressure set higher than the pantograph raising pressure. If you have the voltage on the main circuit, but the main circuit breaker keeps triping, the pressure in the AUXILARY air reservior needs to be increased.m engages the Main Circuit Breaker.
The key needs to be held down for a moment, usually 1-2 seconds.
xturns on the Transformer.
cturns on the Main Compressor and the pressure in the Main Reservoir rises.
In a case of some locos and EMUs, like; EU07, EP09, EN57, one needs to wait before the Transformerfully turns on. Only then, the compressor can be turned on.

When the pressure in the Main Reservoir reaches 7 Athmospheres, the brakes can be released
Num 6 Running Position, wait, untill the pressure in the Main Pipe reaches 5 athmospheres
Quick Release can also be used carefully, as not to „Overcharge” the train, especially if the train includes the "Bdhpumn", "WLABd" or "Z1" carriages.

Choose the power setting (does not apply to all electric locos). High Current Range allows for higher currents to be drawn from the power station, when the motors are connected in series.
fSwitch between the 'High Start' and the 'Low Start' limit

The train heating can be turned on (does not apply to all electric locos)
h Turns on and off the train heating


The ride begins
Press Num + (on the numeric keypad) and we wait untill the contactors engage (the right lamp will light up on the console) and then we keep adding power using Num +.
Num + turn the power controller one position 'up'
Num - move the powe controller one position 'back'

These positions regulate the current,which causes the locomotive to speed up. When the right lamp goes out, that means that we are on a resistance-free position. We can increase the current by weakening the motor excitation field.
Num / increases the motor 'bypass' by one position.
Num *decreases the motor 'bypass'by one position.

ATTENTION: in some locomotives the 'bypass' is located on the power controller wheel itself. In those cases, we don not operate the 'bypass' using the Num */Num /, instead, simply, using Num +/Num -. These locos include; EP05, EU05.

Keep in mind not to go over around 650 A (in practice each loco has the Traction motor overload relay limits set slightly differently;for example the ET22 in The Sim it is 600 A) per group, since the Motor overload relay will trip. When that happens, a red lamp will illuminate on the console, and the motor current will be stopped. The Loco will cease to accelerate (unless it is down hill ;) ) To reset it, move the power controller to 0(also the 'bypass' controller too) and press n.
Num * decrease the 'bypass' by one position (hold, to go to 0)
Num - move the power controller down one position (hold to go to 0)
n reset the Motor Overcharge Relay

Whilst driving remember to reset the safety systems (the SHP and CA). When those systems activate, two red lamps illuminate. After a few seconds, if you do not reset the systems a buzzer (loud audiable alarm) will sound,and then after few seconds the Emergency Brake will activate. If that happened, wait untill the train stops, reset the SHP/CA and unbrake the train.
SPACJA resets the SHP and the CA

Sometimes, we can get wheelslip. If that happens, the right lamp will light up. When we get wheelslip we can:
Shift+s use the sander (spray sand)
ENTER brake a little (loco brake cylinders are filled to a preset value)

Wheelslip is very dangerous for the loco's traction motors and we have to stop is as quickly as possible.If we don't do that, the motors may get damaged. When that happens, the Main Circuit Breaker trips and all the lamps on the console extinguish. Using F3 we check 'damage status' and if it says "Engine damaged" we go to the engine room using END orHOME and disconnect the damaged motors.
Shift + e Disconnect the damaged motors

Handling of the FV4a valve (EU07, EP07, EP08, EP09, ET21 [3e3-zez version], ET22 [including ET22-2000_v2], EP05, EU05, ET40, ET41, ET42, 181)
Num . - Quick ReleaseNum 6 - Running position

All position below 'Running' are braking positions.
Num 9 Push the handle forwards, decreasing the braking force
Num 3 Pull the handle backwards, increase the braking force

The positions differ by the amount of braking force they provide. The last positiona,'Six O'clock' is the Emergency Brake, when the Main Pipe is connected with the athmosphere. Locos also have brakes which work only on the locomotive brakes.
Num 7 push handle, air removed from the cylinders
Num 1 pull handle, fill the cylinder, loco brakes

Handling of the H14K1 brake valve (EU04, ET21 [3e2 version])
To brake the train, it is best to use the Num 3 and Num 9 keys.
In order to brake the train, from the "Running position" Num 6 press the Num 3 three times, while the third press for around 1/2 second. Next press Num 9 - a drop of 0,5 bars should occur in the Main Pipe.
If the train is not braking strong enough press Num 3, and then quickly Num 9. Do so, untill the braking force is strong enough.
To release the brakes, set the handle into the "Quick Release, Brake Release" Num . or 3×Num 9. After the brakes are fully released the handle can then be returned to the "Running" position Num 6 lub 1×Num 3.
STARTING AND DRIVING VEHICLES WITH POWER INVERTERS AND ASYNCHRONOUS MOTORS

This description applies only to all locomotives and EMUs that use a power inverter. Only the differences to vehicles with a resistive start are described.
Turning on the baterries usually causes the on-board computer to turn on, which displays the vehicle status and start-up gauges. The compressor is turned on automatically along with the main transformer.
Currently only the tractive effort control is implemented. The tractive effort can be changed in steps of 10%, Num + increses it by 10% and Num - decreases by 10%. In case of an EMU or a light loco-hauled train, braking is done using a electrodynamic brake Num 1 braking, while Num 7 is brake release. In case of heavier trains braking is done using the pneumatic train brake. The computer automatically keeps the tractive effort constant and eliminates any wheelslips. When standing, the parking brake is automatically applied. It is disengaged when tractive effort set to >20%.
In some EMUs it is possible to turn on the cruise control Num / to the speed at which the cruise control was turned on. Cruise control is turned off by Num *. Stopping and following start-up do not turn off/ reset the cruise control. It should be engaged when first reaching the line speed and corrected when it changes.


STARTING AND DRIVING A DIESEL-ELECTRIC LOCMOTIVE

We control the Diesel-Electrics (SM31, SM41, SM42, SP42, ST44 [także M62_mod_v1], SU45, SU46, TEM2) in a very similar manner as we do with the Electric locos. All (except the SM41, which uses the H14K1 valve, instruction above) use the FV4a valve.
The principal difference is that we don't use a pantograph and we don't 'bypass' the motors (SU45 and SU46 do it automatically, and 'bypassing' in the SM42 and SP42 has not been implemented in the Exe).
In some of these locos, to move from standstill,Num + need to be pressed twice, since the first position (1 x Num +) close the contactors but no current flows through them. Another difference is the function which f do. It does not increase the current range limit. In SM42 and SP42 it switches the loco into Shunt Mode, whereas in other Diesel-Electrics, it has no function. It's [Shunt Mode] description:

Power Controller to 0 -> Shift + f -> Set position using the Power Controller -> using Num / and Num * we change the field excitation.
Upto 4th position of the power controller we need to set some excitation manually, in order to move, from 5th position we can start without excitation, but it will be slow.

Turn Shunt Mode off:
Power controller to 0 -> f


STARTING AND DRIVING A DIESEL-MECHANICAL LOCOMOTIVE

SN61
Brake operation is the same, as in the case of electric locomotives with the FV4a valve.
  1. First set the direction of travel  (d - forwards, r - backwards).
  2. Then set the power controller tot eh first position (Num +).
  3. Now the engine starter may be turned on (m).
  4. After a sucessfull start-up you can move the power controller one position up (neutral gear) and wait for the Main Reservoir to charge.
  5. Release the brakes. To move the power handle needs to be moved one more position up - the locomotive will roll on a half-clutch, after reaching 7-8 km/h you can move the handle up, into normal driving positions (there are 5):
    0: Fuel cut-off
    1: Engine start
    2: Neutral gear
    3: Starting off
    4: 1. Driving position (15% of fuel dosage)
    5: 2. Driving position
    6: 3. Driving position
    7: 4. Driving position
    8: 5. Driving position (100% fuel dosage)
Please don't burn the clutch.


SM03/04
The brake handling is the same as with electric locos with the H14K1 valve.
  1. Turn on the engine (m).
  2. Turn on the compressor (c).
  3. When the compressor supplies enough pressure, the brakes can be released.
  4. Set the direction of travel (d - forward, r - backward).
  5. Shift into 1st gear - Num /.
  6. Give it some gas (Num +), loco should start moving.
  7. When the engine reaches maximal revs you can shift into the next gear (in between the gears, are clutches). Repeat the operation until the final, 4th gear is reached.
  8. To stop, cut the gas (Num -), go into neutral gear (Num *) and brake according to the instructions.

Author of the driving description for SM03/04: szogun



DRIVING THE TROLLEYS

'Machajka' (Hand-pumped trolley)
  1. The tractive effort is created by cyclically moving the big lever away from yourself Num + and when it the furthest from you, towards yourself Num -.
  2. We brake by holding the lever in one position or by the use of a hand brake Ctrl + Num 1 (release Ctrl + Num 7)


Dl-2
  1. Set the direction of travel  d - forward, r - backward.
  2. Turn on the engine m. (long start-up sequence, hold for >10s or it will die, for first 5 sec nothing will happen)
  3. Give it some gas Num + or the engine will shut down. Let it idle for a long moment.
  4. Shift it into gear Num /. Trolley moves. Has eight levels of power/gas (Num + Num -) and four gears (including the neutral Num / Num *)
  5. Brake with the hand brake Ctrl + num1 (release Ctrl + num7)



DRIVING EMUs
Applies to: ED72, EN57. Method of driving of the EMUs is very similar to the electric locomotive method. However, there is no separate 'bypass' lever. It is included on the power controller, as the controller moves up onto the highest positions. Additionally, when setting the reverser, it has two forward positions (twice d from initial position) to the „Forwards II” position. It allows for faster acceleration than „Forwards I”. We use it (Forw. II) mainly when we intend on going over 70-80 km/h.
In the EMUs, we additionally have the :
,/, open/close left doors
./. open/close right doors
/ door closing signal


ED72, EN57 - Braking method (Oerlikon electropneumatic version)
While in motion the handle should be in the "Running" position Num 6.
When we want to brake we let the air into the cylinders. We put the handle in the "EP Braking" position (Num 3 key), and then we return to "Running" position (Num 9 or Num 6). Amount of air in the cylinders, and thus the braking force depend on how long we had the handle in the "EP Braking". If we are braking too quickly, we can release some air from the cylinders, or unbrake completly. In that case move the handle into the "Releasing" position - hold the Num . key. When we stop pressing Num . the handle automatically returns into 'Running' position.


EN57 braking method (Electropneumatic Knorr version)
[Only founf in the in the EN57-001 in The Sim]
After The Sim has started we need to unbrake the train - Num ..
While in motion the handle should be in the "EP Release, PN Running" position Num 6.
When we want to brake, we let the air into the cylinders. In order to do that we place the handle in the "EP Braking" position (Num 3 key) and we press the little lever under the handle (use the Enter key). We let go of the little lever and move the handle to the "EP Release, PN Running" position (Num 9 or Num 6). Braking force depends on the amount of time the handle (with the lever activated!!!) remained in the "EP braking". If we are braking too quickly we can let some air out, or unbrake the whole train completly. To do that we activate the little lever Enter.

DRIVING THE ET22-2000
Simplified operating manual - ET22 locomotive 2000 Series.

After raising the pantograph please turn on the monitor: Shift + ;
Next we do just the same as in a traditional ET22: main circuit breaker, transformer, compressor.
After releasing the brakes (brake usage and method the same as in old/unmodernised ET22) choose the travel direction - d/r.

Start up method is as follows:

1.1 Power controller

 Power controller has 4 positions marked: „0”, „-”, „=”, „+”.

a) „0” position — no power: motors are disconnected from the power source - no tractive effort;

b) „-” position — tractive effort decrease: when held in this position, the tractive effort is decreased;

c) „=” position — setting the tractive effort: the tractive effort is kept constant in the nearest long-term driving position;

d) „+” position — tractive effort increase: tractive effort is constantly being increased untill max tractive effort has been reached.

1.2 Using the power controller:

a) Acceleration: To accelerate, put the handle into the „+” position for a while and then return it to the „=” position. The vehicle will automatically choose the nearest long-term driving position.

b) Speed setting: hold the handle in the „-” position untill the choosen long-term position has been reached. If the lever returns to the „=” position occurs on a resistive position, the vehicle will automatically choose the higher long-term driving position. For example: to move to the S position from R, you need to wait untill all R and SR position have been skipped. If the handle is returned too soon, an R or SR position will be choosen instead.

c) Rolling or braking: There are two ways to start unpowered rolling: directly moving the handle to the „0” position or holding the handle in the „-” position untill the current is cut-off. Then it can be moved to the „N” position.

DRIVING THE ET42
The general driving method is the same, as with all other electric locomotives. However, certain functions characterisitic only to this series have been added.

1. Turn on the speedometer and the indicator lights.

In the real ET42 locomotive, the controls need to be turned on using a switch on the panel. Without it, the switches and the speedometer will not be powered up. To turn it on, press the >, keys.

2. Electrodynamic brake operation.

ET42 has a electrodynamic brake, but it works differently than, say, the EP09. It is operated by putting the Motor Bypass into the -1 position (using the Num * key) and then increasing the braking power by operating the power controller (Num +). If you are sure that you did everything correctly, and the locomotive still won't move when you put the power controller into the first position, go down to 0 (Num -) and press Num /. It causes the bypass switch to swithc into neutral (thus disabling the ED brake) and allows it to move.

3. Separate high and low tone horn buttons.

In the ET42, the high and the low horns are separate buttons. Low tone is operated like in the rest of the locos, using a key. However, the high tone is used by the BELL, which is connected onto the s key.

4. Changing the motor connections.

In the ET42 locomotive, the Higher Motor Current Limit does not work. Using the Shift + f keys causes the way the motors are connected to change (Series - Parallel), which helps with getting a very heavy train to start and to maintain low speed, without using the resistors. When driving on the changed connections, the power controller goes up to only the 25th position and Motor Bypass Controller> is locked out of use. To return the motor connections to normal, put the power controller to 0 ( Num - key) and press f. After carrying out the above procedure you can continue with driving the train.

ATTENTION!

The AI has problems with driving the ET42 series. It is caused by the ED brake. The AI sets the Bypass controller to -1, which is why it can't start the locomotive. In order for the AI to use the ET42 you need to give it (AI) the "dumb" version (112edumb-a and 112edumb-b). To find out how to write scenario entries for trains go to the website containing the description. To do this requires interfering with MaSzyna's files, and thus is NOT RECOMMENDED for new users.

___________________

Maybe now you thought to yourself:
"Hm. Very well. I know how to control locos and EMUs. I know how to start and stop, but I don't know when. How do you know how fast to go, when to start braking etc.?"

While driving, it is very important to observe the signals, signs and the timetable. To know what each signal aspect means, please familiarise yourself with the Ie-1 instruction manual, which applies on the PLK (Polish Rail Infrastructure manager) network. It is located in the: przepisy_kolejowe/ie-1.pdf [POLISH ONLY].
For a brief English description of the signal aspects, please go to This Wikipedia article

Description author: ET22_RULZ.
Updates and modifications: libertyn89, adsim, Maciej, macius5991.
ET22-2000 control instruction: Maciej "youBy" Cierniak. Fixes: Michał "mKaczy" Massel.
ET42 control instruction: szogun.
English Translation: kolejarz2009